A handful of nice sheet metal china pictures I located:
Stalinorgel. Stalin’s Organ. Сталинский орган.
Image by Peer.Gynt
Katyusha a number of rocket launchers (Russian: Катюша) are a type of rocket artillery initial built and fielded by the Soviet Union in Globe War II. Compared to other artillery, these multiple rocket launchers provide a devastating quantity of explosives to an area target swiftly, but with reduced accuracy and requiring a longer time to reload. They are fragile compared to artillery guns, but economical and effortless to generate. Katyushas of Planet War II, the 1st self-propelled artillery mass-produced by the Soviet Union, had been usually mounted on trucks. This mobility gave Katyushas (and other self-propelled artillery) an additional benefit: getting capable to provide a big blow all at once, and then move just before being located and attacked with counter-battery fire.
Katyusha weapons of Globe War II included the BM-13 launcher, light BM-8, and heavy BM-31. These days, the nickname is also applied to newer truck-mounted Soviet multiple rocket launchers—notably the widespread BM-21—and derivatives.
Initially, the secrecy kept their military designation from getting recognized by the soldiers who operated them. They had been referred to as by code names such as Kostikov Guns (right after the head of the RNII), and lastly classed as Guards Mortars.[two] The name BM-13 was only allowed into secret documents in 1942, and remained classified until after the war.[three]
Since they have been marked with the letter K, for Voronezh Komintern Factory,[three] Red Army troops adopted a nickname from Mikhail Isakovsky’s well-liked wartime song, Katyusha, about a girl longing for her absent beloved, who is away performing military service. Katyusha is the Russian equivalent of Katie, an endearing diminutive form of the name Katherine: Yekaterina →Katya →Katyusha.
German troops coined the sobriquet Stalin’s organ (German: Stalinorgel), after Soviet leader Joseph Stalin for its visual resemblance to a church musical organ and alluding to the sound of the weapon’s rockets. They are identified by the very same name in Sweden. [four]
The heavy BM-31 launcher was also referred to as Andryusha (Андрюша, “Andrew”, endearing diminutive).
Katyushas of Planet War II
Katyusha rocket launchers have been mounted on several platforms throughout Planet War II, such as on trucks, artillery tractors, tanks, and armoured trains, as properly as on naval and riverine vessels as assault support weapons.
The design and style was fairly straightforward, consisting of racks of parallel rails on which rockets were mounted, with a folding frame to raise the rails to launch position. Every truck had between 14 and 48 launchers. The 132-mm diameter M-13 rocket of the BM-13 technique was 180 centimetres (70.9 in) lengthy, 13.two centimetres (5.two in) in diameter and weighed 42 kilograms (92 lb). Initially, the caliber was 130 mm, but the caliber was changed (very first the designation, and then the actual size), to stay away from confusing them with standard artillery shells[three]. It was propelled by a strong nitrocellulose-primarily based propellant of tubular shape, arranged in a steel-case rocket engine with a single central nozzle at the bottom end. The rocket was stabilised by cruciform fins of pressed sheet steel. The warhead, either fragmentation, high-explosive or shaped-charge, weighed about 22 kg (48 lb). The range of the rockets was about five.4 kilometres (three.4 mi). Later, 82-mm diameter M-eight and 310-mm diameter M-31 rockets have been also developed.
The weapon is much less accurate than standard artillery guns, but is extremely successful in saturation bombardment, and was particularly feared by German soldiers. A battery of 4 BM-13 launchers could fire a salvo in 7–10 seconds that delivered 4.35 tons of high explosives more than a four-hectare (ten acres) effect zone. With an effective crew, the launchers could redeploy to a new location immediately following firing, denying the enemy the opportunity for counterbattery fire. Katyusha batteries had been typically massed in very large numbers to produce a shock impact on enemy forces. The weapon’s disadvantage was the lengthy time it took to reload a launcher, in contrast to standard guns which could sustain a continuous low rate of fire.
The sound of the rocket launching also was exclusive in that the continuous "woosh" sound that came from the firing of the rockets could be employed for psychological warfare. The rocket’s devastating destruction also helped to decrease the morale of the German army.
Katyushas of Planet War II
Katyusha rocket launchers have been mounted on many platforms during World War II, such as on trucks, artillery tractors, tanks, and armoured trains, as well as on naval and riverine vessels as assault help weapons.
The design and style was relatively straightforward, consisting of racks of parallel rails on which rockets have been mounted, with a folding frame to raise the rails to launch position. Each truck had among 14 and 48 launchers. The 132-mm diameter M-13 rocket of the BM-13 technique was 180 centimetres (70.9 in) long, 13.two centimetres (5.two in) in diameter and weighed 42 kilograms (92 lb). Initially, the caliber was 130 mm, but the caliber was changed (very first the designation, and then the actual size), to keep away from confusing them with regular artillery shells. It was propelled by a strong nitrocellulose-primarily based propellant of tubular shape, arranged in a steel-case rocket engine with a single central nozzle at the bottom end. The rocket was stabilised by cruciform fins of pressed sheet steel. The warhead, either fragmentation, higher-explosive or shaped-charge, weighed about 22 kg (48 lb). The range of the rockets was about 5.four kilometres (3.4 mi). Later, 82-mm diameter M-8 and 310-mm diameter M-31 rockets were also developed.
The weapon is less precise than conventional artillery guns, but is incredibly efficient in saturation bombardment, and was especially feared by German soldiers. A battery of four BM-13 launchers could fire a salvo in 7–10 seconds that delivered 4.35 tons of higher explosives over a four-hectare (10 acres) effect zone. With an efficient crew, the launchers could redeploy to a new location instantly right after firing, denying the enemy the opportunity for counterbattery fire. Katyusha batteries were usually massed in extremely big numbers to produce a shock effect on enemy forces. The weapon’s disadvantage was the extended time it took to reload a launcher, in contrast to conventional guns which could sustain a continuous low rate of fire.
The sound of the rocket launching also was special in that the constant "woosh" sound that came from the firing of the rockets could be utilized for psychological warfare. The rocket’s devastating destruction also helped to decrease the morale of the German army.
BM-13 battery fire, in the course of the Battle of Berlin, April 1945, with metal blast covers pulled over the windshields
The numerous rocket launchers were leading secret in the beginning of World War II. A specific unit of the NKVD secret police was raised to operate them.[two] On July 7, 1941, an experimental artillery battery of seven launchers was 1st utilised in battle at Orsha in Belarus, below the command of Captain Ivan Flyorov, destroying a station with several provide trains, and causing huge German Army casualties. Following the good results, the Red Army organized new Guards Mortar batteries for the support of infantry divisions. A battery’s complement was standardized at four launchers. They remained under NKVD manage till German Nebelwerfer rocket launchers became widespread later in the war.
A battery of BM-31 several rocket launchers in operation
On August eight, 1941, Stalin ordered the formation of eight Unique Guards Mortar regiments under the direct manage of the Common Headquarters Reserve (Stavka-VGK). Each and every regiment comprised 3 battalions of three batteries, totalling 36 BM-13 or BM-8 launchers. Independent Guards Mortar battalions had been also formed, comprising 36 launchers in 3 batteries of twelve. By the end of 1941, there had been eight regiments, 35 independent battalions, and two independent batteries in service, holding a total of 554 launchers.
In June 1942 Heavy Guards Mortar battalions were formed about the new M-30 static rocket launch frames, consisting of 96 launchers in three batteries. In July, a battalion of BM-13s was added to the establishment of a tank corps. In 1944, the BM-31 was employed in Motorized Heavy Guards Mortar battalions of 48 launchers. In 1943, Guards Mortar brigades, and later divisions, were formed equipped with static launchers.
By the end of 1942, 57 regiments have been in service—together with the smaller sized independent battalions, this was the equivalent of 216 batteries: 21% BM-eight light launchers, 56% BM-13, and 23% M-30 heavy launchers. By the end of the war, the equivalent of 518 batteries were in service.
 Katyushas given that World War II
Russian forces use BM-27 rocket launchers during the Second Chechen War
The success and economy of multiple rocket launchers (MRL) have led them to continue to be developed. For the duration of the Cold War, the Soviet Union fielded several models of Katyushas, notably the BM-21 launchers fitting the stereotypical Katyusha mould, and the bigger BM-27. Advances in artillery munitions have been applied to some Katyusha-kind numerous launch rocket systems, which includes bomblet submunitions, remotely-deployed land mines, and chemical warheads.
With the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russia inherited most of its military arsenal such as the Katyusha rockets. In current history, they have been employed by Russian forces in the course of the 1st and Second Chechen Wars and by Armenian and Azerbaijani forces for the duration of the Nagorno-Karabakh War. Georgian government forces are reported to have utilised BM-21 or equivalent rocket artillery in fighting in the 2008 South Ossetia war.
Katyushas had been exported to Afghanistan, Angola, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, East Germany, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, North Korea, Poland, Syria, and Vietnam. They have been also constructed in Czechoslovakia, People’s Republic of China, North Korea, and Iran.
Katyushas also saw action in the Korean War, used by the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army against the South and United Nations forces. Soviet BM-13s had been identified to have been imported to China before the Sino-Soviet split and had been operational in the People’s Liberation Army.
Israel captured BM-24 MRLs in the course of the Six-Day War (1967), used them in two battalions for the duration of the Yom Kippur War (1973) and the 1982 Lebanon War, and later developed the MAR-240 launcher for the identical rockets, primarily based on a Sherman tank chassis. In the course of the 2006 Lebanon War, Hezbollah fired among 3,970 and four,228 rockets, from light truck-mounts and single-rail man-transportable launchers. About 95% of these were 122 mm (four.eight in) Syrian-manufactured Katyusha artillery rockets, which carried warheads up to 30 kg (66 lb) and had a range of up to 30 km (19 mi).. Hamas has launched 122-mm “Grad-sort Katyusha” rockets from the Gaza Strip against a number of cities in Israel, even though they are not reported to have truck-mounted launchers.
Katyushas had been also allegedly used by the Rwandan Patriotic Front throughout its 1990 invasion of Rwanda, by means of the 1994 genocide. They were successful in battle, but translated into significantly anti-Tutsi sentiment in the neighborhood media.
It was reported that BM-21 launchers had been utilised against American forces for the duration of 2003 invasion of Iraq. They have also been employed in the Afghanistan and Iraq insurgencies. In Iraq, according to Associated Press and Agence France-Presse reports, Katyusha rockets were fired at the Green Zone late March 2008.
ROM Royal Ontario Museum 2010
Image by BRJ INC.
JNF Charity Box, Palestinian, for use in Germany. Sheet metal, enamel. 999.119.51
These photographs are from my go to to the Royal Ontario Museum. I went due to the fact they have been obtaining a specific exhibit featuring the terracota army. Despite the fact that photographs of the figures themselves have been strictly prohibited I still managed to get some very good shots from other exhibits the museum was obtaining.
Burnig Sheets of Metal
Image by niqodemus