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Image from page 149 of “Railway and locomotive engineering : a sensible journal of railway motive power and rolling stock” (1901)
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Title: Railway and locomotive engineering : a practical journal of railway motive energy and rolling stock
Year: 1901 (1900s)
Subjects: Railroads Locomotives
Publisher: New York : A. Sinclair Co
Contributing Library: Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh
Digitizing Sponsor: Lyrasis Members and Sloan Foundation
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-jected to all manner of importunities toside-step or distort details already stated. A night train was descending the gradeinto a division station where a change ofengines was to be produced. As the trainapproached the station it was not underfull manage and the engineer, evidently infear of striking the engine waiting to re-lieve him, jumped off and was killed. Thesuit was promptly instituted against thetailroad organization and long soon after, I withnumerous other people, were notified to appearat the court property of a fairly tiny In-diana city, on a specific date. The courtconvened in due time, a jury was drawnand soon after a number of preliminaries,among which was a supply of cuspidorsfor the granger jurymen, all of whomwere vigorously chewing plug tobacco, andoccasionally expectorating at the nearestcuspidor with practically the precision of aprojectile fired from a gun, the trial started.For some purpose not apparent I was re-tained as the final witness and as a conse-quence I sat for numerous days in the court
Text Appearing Right after Image:
TANK LOCOMOTIVE FOR THE KOWLOON-CANTON RAILW each and every. The passenger coaches are of thebogie type, with corridor, and fittedthroughout with electric light and allmodern improvements. There are alto-gether eight passenger coaches. Thecompletion of this line will no doubtprove to be of fantastic value to Britishand other interests in China. These factsshow also the little beginnings fromwhich railway enterprises frequently commence.China is awakening, and in a couple of yearsit is probable that the complete country willbe covered with the modern steel higher-methods of commerce. Old-Time Railroad Reminiscences.By S. J. Kidder. I believe a somewhat general impressionprevails among the railroad laymen thata man who gets into the air brake busi-ness has his time fairly completely occupied inlooking soon after such issues as pertain to I have been named upon fairly a numbercf occasions to seem as a witness on behalfof railroads, but thankfully was in a position toget off with but slight cross-examinationby resorting to some of the intr
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Leica X1 Assessment
Image by elviskennedy
For the full set of Leica X1 sample photos go to the Leica X1 Sample Images set in the elviskennedy photostream right here www.flickr.com/pictures/elviskennedy/sets/72157626825279684…
The Leica X1 appears and feels like the precision instrument that you would count on it to be. It is a Leica after all. For more than one hundred years Leica has engineered and crafted state-of-the-art optical instruments, and the Leica X1 is no exception – it continues the tradition.
What is the Leica X1? Simply place it is a big sensor, tiny body digital camera. By massive sensor Elvis means significantly bigger than the sensors found in pocket sized point and shoot cameras. In fact, the sensor in the X1 is almost as big as the sensors discovered in digital SLR cameras. Bigger sensor generally indicates higher image quality (a lot more on that in a moment). By tiny physique Elvis indicates significantly smaller than digital SLR cameras. Smaller body indicates less difficult to carry and have with you (and less difficult to hide for you secret agent types).
What does all of this imply? Essentially it implies that you can have image quality nearly as high as an SLR camera in a package almost as small as a point and shoot camera. These are both quite good issues.
You can note that the Leica X1 is not a do everything camera and be disappointed. It does not have lots of menus filled with shooting choices, post processing choices or an array of fancy shooting gimmicks and tricks. It doesn’t have (gasp!) video. You happen to be stuck with a 35mm field of view lens. Or you can take the alternative view as Elvis does and look at the Leica X1 as a do a single thing really properly camera and be happy.
The Leica X1 is basic to operate. You won’t miss shots since you left your menu settings on some silly choice. You won’t waste time more than-considering which shooting alternative or which lens to use. You won’t be disappointed with the shaky video that you get with most SLR cameras. You will be amazed at the image quality. And you are going to be tickled with the famous Leica "look" that you can only get with genuine Leica lenses.
Leading 5 Factors to Really like the Leica X1
The Leica lens and the Leica lens "look"
It compliments your digital SLR
Ease of use
Image Good quality
Image High quality
NOTE: Elvis’ testimonials are based on gear that Elvis bought with his own, challenging-earned income. This means that Elvis went via some sort of justification in acquiring the piece of gear and/or that it was probably to fill some want. Elvis does not acquire stuff just to assessment it. Consequently, if you’re searching for reasons not to like the Leica X1 you will want to look elsewhere. Elvis is a lover, not a hater. The intent of this review is to show you what the X1 can and can not do, how it operates in actual operation and what you can count on in end benefits. The intent is not to nit pick the X1 or to evaluate it to a variety of other cameras in some sort of contest.
The Leica Lens & The Leica "Look"
The Leica lens integrated with every single X1 is a valid purpose to obtain the X1. It really is a 24mm f/two.eight Elmarit. Leica aficionados recognize that to be a globe class lens. To these new to Leica, let Elvis to assure you that the lens top quality is of the highest order. The "look" of a lens, or household of lenses is difficult to describe. Ineffable, really. It will not quit Elvis from trying though. Elvis’ two favorite lenses ever are the Leica 35 f/two Summicron aspherical and the Nikon 85 f/1.4. These two lenses are bright, sharp, have a remarkable flatness of field and when used appropriately make quite pleasing out of concentrate ( bokeh ) places. These attributes make for great landscapes and spectacular portraits. Elvis argues that these two lenses are so very good that you can justify acquiring a great camera physique on which to attach them. They really are that good.
What does that have to do with the lens on the X1? The 24mm on the X1 produces photographs that give a "look" that is comparable to Elvis’ two favored lenses described above. Vibrant, sharp, flat field and pleasing out-of-concentrate places. And do not let the 24mm moniker concern you. As an APS-C sensor camera there is a multiplication aspect to consider: 1.five. That 24mm on the X1 offers you a 35mm field of view, which is just about the most versatile field of view there is.
Take a close appear at the sample pictures provided by Elvis. Click on every single image to view the photos in their full-file glory. And click on More Pictures to see, well, Far more Photos.
It Compliments Your Digital SLR
The X1 is the ideal (and Elvis means ideal) camera with which to compliment your digital SLR. Your SLR gives you lots of shooting possibilities, lots of lens choices, video and all types of fun tricks to play around with. That is your principal camera. The Leica X1 compliments this by getting tiny and pocketable with higher image high quality. Going on trip? Use your SLR at Disney Globe, on the vehicle trip to the mountaintop lookout and on photography certain excursions. Pack the X1 for street shooting, at the beach, hiking and when out to dinner. Shooting a sporting occasion? The SLR is excellent for action shots throughout the game. The X1 is great for shooting the group for the duration of pre-game pep talks, players on the sidelines and right after game celebrations and group activities. Weddings? SLR is fantastic for formals and receptions. Leica X1 is great for in the course of the ceremony given that it is silent in operation. You get the notion. With an SLR and an X1 you are well equipped for any photographic opportunity.
Ease of Use
In use the Leica X1 is terrific. Take a couple of minutes to recognize the few shooting possibilities that the X1 provides, set your favorites and you are now prepared to shoot at a moment’s notice. There is absolutely nothing to the X1 that will slow you down. It really is a photographic machine – plain and easy.
Is it the quickest focusing camera ever? No it is not. In dim light it can take a handful of seconds to focus. But keep in mind that the Leica lens is sharp and what you want is precise focusing to take benefit of that sharp lens. Just like a manually focused lens it can take a moment to get it critically right. And in medium to vibrant light it’s quickly. (See Elvis’ test of the enhanced focusing speed with new firmware Right here).
The battery and charger are both little and portable. The SD cards employed in the X1 are universally accepted, fast and durable (and low-cost). The DNG files can be opened with virtually any photo editing application and are claimed to be future-proof.
The little size and light weight of the Leica X1 can’t be overstated. The camera is extremely effortless to deal with, use and pocket. But don’t let the size and weight fool you – it is built to exacting standards and is jewel-like and elegant to hold.
It may quite nicely be the camera with the highest image high quality that you could hand to a stranger to take your image in front of (name landmark right here) and not need to explain to the stranger how to use it. It’s simplicity belies it’s strength.
If you are familiar with Leica imaging you will instantly recognize that pedigree in the X1 photographs. If you are new to Leica you are in for a treat. The X1, like the Leica M series of cameras and lenses, produces sparkling, clear and crisp photographs with smooth and pleasing out of concentrate locations. Lack of flare and lack of field curvature are other traits in the planet of Leica.
You needn’t appear hard to discern Leica photographs. It really is instantly apparent. Elvis is particularly fond of the crispness of Leica photographs. It really is not specifically sharpness and it’s not specifically contrast – it is crispness (Elvis warned you at the outset of this evaluation that these are difficult issues to define). Just appear at the samples and see if you can note these factors.
Point and shoot cameras and four/3rds cameras are no match for the Leica X1 when it comes to image quality. Some DSLRs can have a slight edge but at a size and weight expense. The Fuji X100 is a close match in a distinct (not as basic) physique, and should be a camera that you consider (see Elvis’ comparison of the Leica X1 and Fuji X100 Here), but it won’t give you the Leica "look", ease of use or pocket ability.
When it comes to image quality, engineering matters. Leica excels at engineering. Some primary keys are sensor high quality, lens (glass, not plastic) quality, lens-to-sensor distance, lens element positioning and consistency, lens element coatings, use of aspherical surfaces, durability of supplies used. All of these regions are strengths of the Leica firm and have been for generations.
Superior lens glass is more critical than a high resolution image monitor. A superior sensor is much more important than a video mode. A clean and straightforward but very technical light path is far more critical than page after web page of shooting and post processing possibilities. You get the idea right here. Leica focused on the image path and little else.
A larger image sensor is a extremely very good issue. All things being equal, a bigger sensor captures images with a greater dynamic range than a smaller sized sensor. Basically, greater dynamic range signifies much more detail in dark places, medium locations and light locations of the scene. Greater image quality. As a bonus, bigger image sensors generate a smaller depth of field for any given aperture setting, allowing for superior out of focus regions and image "pop".
Leica managed to mount a big image sensor into a little camera and for the initial time we have a pocketable camera that can generate higher image quality. Some believed that the so-called 4 thirds method cameras were going to be the resolution. The sensor in the Leica X1 is roughly 60% larger than the four thirds sensors and in Elvis’ estimation the resulting image top quality is at least double. There’s practically nothing incorrect with the 4 thirds cameras but the X1 image top quality is greater. The image sensor in the X1 is eight to ten instances larger than the sensors in common point and shoot cameras. You don’t require Elvis to do that math for you.
In a planet of do-it-all cameras with choices as well numerous to mention (let alone completely understand) one particular could say that Leica took a flyer with the X1. Ignoring video, not getting tempted with gimmicks and gadgets could be considered a threat. But that would be a full misunderstanding of what Leica is. Leica has often been about stripping photography down to it really is bare essence. Focus on the image. Let other companies throw out dozens of possibilities to see what sticks. Leica must be applauded for putting a superior, big sensor behind a true Leica lens and stuffing each into an elegant and portable body.
For a complete set of sample photos taken with the Leica X1 got to Elvis Kennedy’s Leica X1 group folder of the photostream. The outcome of all of this engineering is that you can get a high image quality creating machine in a modest and elegant package. A correct industry top item, the Leica X1.
For the complete set of sample photographs go Right here, and be certain to hit the "O" button above every single image to see them in their Original, complete size.
For far more go to www.elviskennedy.com
Douglas A-3 Skywarrior simulator cab:
Image by wbaiv
Note VAK-308 sticker
This simulator has ‘stuff’ for the pilot and the bombardier-navigator/refueling/electronic warfare wizard. No co-pilot in an A-3. The stuff in front of the proper seat would have been bombing and navigation equipment, initially. From my check out to the actual EKA-3B outside, I do not think this is the same appropriate-seat stuff as that a tanker. Could be earlier, later, some of each, for an ECM bird. The pilot and rear gunner sat back to back in the single, fore-and-aft-facing seat, on the left, which has no actual aft-facing seat in this image. There is some kind of an electronics box in the way….
The Navy insisted on the radar guided twin 20mm tail turret, which Heinimann & the Douglas engineers believed was unnecessary weight… but the turrets came off early and the squared-off fuselage endings contained who knew what neat radio antennae. And other stuff. A massive, capable aircraft, the A-3 was bought as a nuclear bomber, speedily discovered a second career as a tanker and added all sorts of electronic reconnaissance and electronic warfare capability in addition to hauling fuel for those who necessary it. For the very first time, over Vietnam and points east, airplanes with heretofore fatal fuel leaks from enemy fire could plug into a tanker and burn sufficient of the fuel pouring by way of them to fly property, Or close to property. Away from the shore.
As was distressingly widespread in the 1960s, when the Navy’s plane was put up against what the USAF had been buying, the Navy plane was much better. That’s how the USAF got the F-four Phantom II (quite briefly the F-110) and the A-7 (constantly the A-7). Neither the USAF nor Douglas could stop the gravitational drift that overwhelmed the "USAF A-3", which morphed into the Douglas B-66 Destroyer. Bet they cost a lot much more than an A-three. (a person have to have giggled more than that name…) No surprise, the USAF already had big tankers, so the B-66s became electronic warfare platforms in rapid time… over Vietnam, over Germany, and anywhere else the USAF flew in the 1960s.
You can locate images of a formation of F-105D "Thunderchiefs" all dropping their iron bombs at the identical time, on signal from an RB-66, that presumably has a radar bombing set-up, and/or unique radio navigation aids. Because the bombs are being dropped through 10/10th cloud. Not, mmm, "precision" weapon delivery, if you will. Several planes dropping numerous bombs and quite possibly in numerous attacks to take out a single target… say, the Paul Daumer Bridge or "Hanoi Thermal Power Station".
Its good to feel you could precompute almost everything and drop iron bombs from four-7 miles up and have a military impact. A lot of folks DID think that, but it wasn’t one thing that actually occurred. Unless you could drop hundreds of bombs from your three plane cells of B-52s. Finally, with Paveway laser-guided bombs, the USAF got precision weapons that really worked. Much more than a single target per plane, rather of a lot more than a single plane, more than one particular raid, per target.
Which is why the US Navy and Marine Corps aviators had place so much effort into hitting certain targets bang proper on the head using dive bombing. For instance, in Nicaragua, in the 1920s and 30s. And other ‘close air support’ strategies.
Father’s day, 2013